Monday, 19 January 2015

CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT IRAN

Civilization of Ancient Iran


Iran - a country of ancient and advanced civilization. Its inhabitants at the beginning of the III millennium. BC. e. have created their own written language and original culture, which was then and improved for many millennia.



Ancient Iranian religion (Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and zervanizm) had a significant impact on the development of philosophical views of the ancient world and the emergence of the eschatological teachings of Christianity and Islam. Many works of ancient and medieval Iranian literature have been translated into Arabic, Syriac, Armenian, and other languages, and then - in the Renaissance and later - gave subjects for literary monuments of the West and the East.Works of art created by the masters of Ancient Iran, have become part of world culture.

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Aboriginal population of south-western Iran were Elamites, family is considered by many scholars, the Dravidian tribes living to the east of them, in Balochistan. In the western foothills of the Zagros and in the north-western Iran tribes lived neindoevropeyskogo origin, including the Hurrians, mannei, Lullubi and others. At the turn of the XII - XI centuries. BC. e. in the West began to settle Iran's Persian and Indian tribes, who subsequently occupied all the Iranian Plateau and assimilate the indigenous population.



South-western part of Iran held Elam (modern. Khuzestan Province), where there were favorable conditions for the rapid development of the productive forces. The flat part of Elam (Suziana) of irrigated water and Karun rivers Kerhe flowing into antiquity in the Persian Gulf. This alluvial valley - one of the oldest areas of farming culture. Already at the turn of the IV - III thousand. BC. e.There is growing abundant crops of barley, Emmer and fruits. Then there arose the craft.Especially significant flourished pottery. The mountainous part of Elam (modern. Bakhtiari Mountains) was rich in timber and construction minerals (copper, lead, etc.). The main occupation of the inhabitants of mountainous areas was cattle.



At the beginning of the III millennium. BC. e. appeared early-union tribes. Capital of one of these associations became Susa, the largest city in the valley and Karuna Kerhe located on the site of the crossing of the major routes connecting Mesopotamia with Elam, as well as North and East Iran. In addition, there was a state in Elam Awan, Anshan, and Kimash Simash.



Gradually developed a distinctive system of government that had existed since the mid-III to mid-II millennium. BC. e. Along with the supreme ruler, who held the title sukkalmah ("great emissary") and was in Shushan, played a big role his deputy, usually younger brother and future successor to the supreme ruler. He called sukkalom (messenger) Simasha.



In the history of ancient Iran is clearly divided into the following stages: during the emergence and flourishing of Elamite civilization (from the end of IV millennium. Before the end of VII century. BC. E.); Indian era (VIII - the middle of the VI. BC. e.); Achaemenid period (mid-VI. to 330 BC. e.); Parthian period (mid-III c. BC. e. - about 224 AD. e.). The southwestern part of Iran held Elam (modern. Khuzestan Province), where there were favorable conditions for the rapid development of the productive forces. The flat part of Elam (Suziana) of irrigated water and Karun rivers Kerhe flowing into antiquity in the Persian Gulf. This alluvial valley - one of the oldest areas of farming culture. Already at the turn of the IV - III thousand. BC. e. There is growing abundant crops of barley, Emmer and fruits. Then there arose the craft. Especially significant flourished pottery. The mountainous part of Elam (modern. Bakhtiari Mountains) was rich in timber and construction minerals (copper, lead, etc.). The main occupation of the inhabitants of mountainous areas was cattle.





At the beginning of the III millennium. BC. e. appeared early-union tribes. Capital of one of these associations became Susa, the largest city in the valley and Karuna Kerhe located on the site of the crossing of the major routes connecting Mesopotamia with Elam, as well as North and East Iran. In addition, there was a state in Elam Awan, Anshan, and Kimash Simash. Gradually developed a distinctive system of government that had existed since the mid-III to mid-II millennium. BC. e. Along with the supreme ruler, who held the title sukkalmah ("great emissary") and was in Shushan, played a big role his deputy, usually younger brother and future successor to the supreme ruler. He called sukkalom (messenger) Simasha. In third place in the state hierarchy was governor of the region Suziana who was the eldest son of the king. He ranked sukkala Simasha in case of death of the latter. Smaller area of the control faces of local origin, after the death of that power passed to their nephews (sons of sisters).





For the royal families of Elam were typical marriage to sisters and levirate, when, after the death of the king, his brother and successor, married the widow of the deceased, and thus was entitled to the throne. Therefore kings and heirs to the throne in Elam anciently bore the title "sons of sisters." Marriages on the sisters continued for a very long time, at least until the middle of VII century. BC. e. Although throughout the history of Elam woman retained its position of honor in the public administration system gradually undergone great changes. Starting from the XIII century. BC. e. the throne became bequeath paternal, from the king to his eldest son.



In the III millennium. BC. e. the main form of economic and social organization in Elam were rural communities, which included all the free people, regardless of their family ties, collectively owned land and cultivate it together. These communities are governed by elders selected the national assembly of a town or village. The People's Assembly and their elected officials regulate disputes, litigation and property assorted criminals were tried. However, since the beginning of the II millennium. BC. e. began to develop intensively private farms using slave labor. This led to property differentiation, to the disintegration of rural communities and the ruin of freemen, who were deprived of land and tools. Land became concentrated in the hands of individual economically powerful families. In place of the rural communities, which by the end of the II millennium. BC. e. ceased to exist, come home community. Producers that were included in them, have been linked by ties of kinship. Home community collectively owned land and treated it together and then divided the income between them. Over time home communities to come together and people who were not relatives. To do this it was necessary only to sign a contract about "brotherhood" and pass their land for community use. Gradually, however, these agreements were used to increase the labor force due to smallholder free to joining the community, lost their property and took part in the cultivation of the land in exchange for part of the harvest. The poor had to resort to loans of grain or money, giving pledge their homes or gardens. In addition to the loan lender also demanded payment of interest. Therefore, many of the poor themselves in debt bondage. Gradually property differentiation processes have led to the expansion of the community home, the disintegration of the collective households as a single economic unit, the section of community property between individual members and even to lease and sale of land.





Along with the community, and later privately owned farms in Elam were also royal and temple management. Temples were the owners of large estates, were engaged in trade and usury, giving a grain of interest-bearing debt, money, etc. Part of temple land lease, the remaining land was treated temple slaves and freemen. However, I thousand. BC. e. as a result of endless wars and repeated incursions into the territory of foreigners Elam temple farms were devastated and ceased to play a prominent role in the economic life of the country. According to the beliefs of the Elamites, the laws have been established by the gods, and the violation of their sun-god punished Nahhunte. In our society were not only religious laws, but the laws on adoption, division of property, the sale of land, etc. For Elamite law was characterized by severe punishment of offenders. For example, for a false oath to cut off his hand and tongue or drowned in the river.Often offenders contract also sentenced to death. The political history of Elam throughout its length was closely connected with the history of Mesopotamia. Both countries were often at war with each other, to conclude a peace treaty and had a lively trade and cultural ties. In XXIV - XXIII centuries. BC. e. Elam was included in the Akkadian state. Most of the documents and inscriptions in Elam in the period is in the Akkadian language. In XXII - XXI centuries. BC. e. with the kings of Ur III Elam remained under the domination of Mesopotamia, but in the second half of the XXI century. BC. e. achieved independence. When the king Kutir-Nahhunte I (1730-1700 gg. BC. E.) Elamites invaded Mesopotamia and, as stated in one of the Babylonian inscriptions, a century "laid hands on the sanctuary and Akkad Akkad turned to dust." Until the middle of the XIV century. BC. e. Elam has maintained his independence, but was conquered by the Babylonians for a long time. About 1180g. BC. e. Elamite king Шутрук-Наххунте I drove the Babylonian army from the territory of Elam and, after a victorious campaign in Babylon, sacked the city and took it from there to Susa booty. Among this production was also stele of Hammurabi, which at the beginning of this century, was excavated by French archaeologists at Susa.







In 1159-1157 gg. BC. e. Elamite king Kutir-Nahhunte III fought with Babylonia, where the rules of the last representative of the Kassite dynasty Enlil-nadin-ahhe. The war ended with the victory of the Elamites, conquered Babylon, Sippar, Nippur and other cities of Mesopotamia. This was the heyday of Elam, and in the power of the Elamite kings of Iran stretched from the Persian Gulf in the south to the area of the present city of Hamadan in the north. In the VIII. BC. e., when Babylon was fighting for its independence from Assyria, Elam became an ally of the Babylonians and became embroiled in endless war with the Assyrians. First, military success was on the side of Elam and his allies. In 720 BC. e. Elamites in the bloody Battle of Dere defeated the Assyrians.But ten years later, the Assyrian king Sargon II invaded Elam and defeated his army. In 692 BC.e. Babylonians raised new revolt against Assyria. Elam, true to its traditional policy, decided to help their allies. Around Elam also united all the tribes of the Zagros, including the Persians. Was created a strong army, whose core is the Elamite and Persian chariot, infantry and cavalry. The battle with the Assyrians occurred in areas Halule on the Tigris. Although the Elamites prevailed in a fierce battle with the Assyrians, they themselves were so bloodless that they were unable to carry the war into enemy territory. When in 652 BC. e. Babylonian king Shamashshumukin revolted against Assyria, the Elamites were again on the side of Babylon. The war ended a decade later the complete defeat and capture of Susa Elam Assyrians. Later, around 549 BC. e., Elam was conquered by the Persians and forever lost its independence. However, Elam civilization has had a huge impact on the material and spiritual culture of ancient Persia. Elamites created original culture. At the beginning of the III millennium. BC. e. they invented the pictographic (picturesque) letter. It is possible that the presence of writing among the Sumerians who lived nearby gave rise to its occurrence, but the latter is a separate kind of letter that called protoelamskim. Over 400 years it was used for recording documents economic reporting was about 150 basic signs to transfer the whole concept and word. On clay tablets in the form of drawings depicting cattle, pitchers, vases, etc. Such labels are found not only on the actual Elamite territory (in Susa, Anshan et al.), But also in central Iran (in the area Sialk) and in the extreme south-east of Iran, 300 km from Kerman at Tepe Yahya, indicating the wide dissemination of Elamite culture at the beginning of the III millennium. BC. e. However, this letter has not yet been deciphered. In the second half of the III millennium. Elam was invented in linear syllabary, which arose independently of protoelamskogo. Signs of Linear, which consist of a combination of different geometric lines, means not the word (Logogram) and syllable (a syllabic script). These characters (and there were about 80) can be written not only economic, but also political or religious texts. Material for writing served stone, clay and metal. However, the linear letter long been in use in most areas of Elam, and basic texts written them, are in the XXIII. BC.e.















Since the end of the III millennium. BC. e. Elamites resorted to the Sumerian-Akkadian cuneiform, they used it to the middle of V in. BC. e. In the first half of the II millennium. BC. e. to produce business documents, as well as to write literary texts they usually used the Akkadian language.Since the second half of the II millennium. BC. e. begins to appear a significant amount of cuneiform texts in Elamite language. Although Elam religion was connected with religion of Mesopotamia, but in its essential features, it is very peculiar. The religious center of the country were Susa. Originally headed Elamite pantheon stood Pinekir "great goddess," says the mother of the gods, which indicates the strong influence of the remnants of the matriarchal law Elamite society. Of great importance was the cult of Inshushinak, the patron saint of Susa, and later the god of the underworld. By the middle of the II millennium. BC. e. dominant position in the pantheon occupied Elamite god Humban. Sun God Nahhunte considered the creator of the day. In one text in the XXIII. BC. e. are the names of 37 Elamite deities. Many of them were honored Elamites at least until the middle of V in. BC. e. Even in IV millennium. BC. e. Elamites created original art. Elamite vessels decorated with geometric patterns and geometrized images of birds, animals and people. Art III millennium. BC. e. most clearly reflected in the seals, which depict griffins, winged lions and demons. On stone vessels - images of cattle, birds and animals. In the II millennium. BC. e. Babylonian art has had a significant impact on the Elamite. Statues of the said period are made ​​in the tradition of sculpture in the round of Babylonia. Elamite art masterpiece is a bronze statue of Queen Napirasu (XIII c. BC. E.), Which weighs 1800 kg and is made ​​with great skill.









The largest monument Elamite architecture - a ziggurat (iconic tower), built directly into Dur Untash (now Choga-Zambia), 30 km from Susa, with the king Untash-Napirisha in the XIII century. BC. e. On p. Karun in the city to supply water channel was conducted 50 km long. At the entrance to the ziggurat were sculptures of lions, bulls, griffins, statues of gods and kings, carved out of gold and silver. The length of the sides of the ground floor of the ziggurat was equal to 105 m. The ziggurat had seven gates and was a four-story. The total height of the building is 42 m. Its construction was spent millions of bricks, and hundreds of thousands of stones. In the ruins of the ziggurat French archaeologists who carried out systematic excavations there found many votive vessels made ​​of metal, marble and glass, as well as hundreds of royal inscriptions. City Chogha Zanbil was destroyed in VII. BC. e. powerful Assyrian invasion troops invaded Elam. Source - http://www.persia.ru ., http://www.cais-soas.com/index.htm

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